JAROSLAW

JAROSLAW (Pol. Jarosław), town in Rzeszow province, S.E. Poland, on the San River. Jaroslaw's development was based on the great fairs held in the 16th and 17th centuries three times yearly. The main one took place toward the fall, and Jewish traders took a prominent part. In business such as the sale of oxen, for which Jaroslaw was a market center, Jews were the main dealers. The fairs were the origin of Jaroslaw's importance in the history of Polish Jewry. They were also, to a certain extent, the origin of the unique organizational character of its Jewish intercommunal institutions. Jewish communal leaders undertook to supervise the security of Jewish merchants visiting Jaroslaw. Jewish judges for the fair (dayyanei ha-yarid) were appointed as was customary among Christians; and a special procedure for them was introduced. A toll was levied on each trader or wagon to defray the expenses entailed. The council of the Lands of Poland frequently convened at the fall fair. A temporary congregation was formed by the Jewish visitors attending the fair. One scholar described the arrangements: "It happened that we were in the city of Jaroslaw at the fair of 1608, where it was a regular custom, as at every fair, that a place was set aside as a synagogue to pray there every day. And also on the Sabbath the scholars and heads of yeshivot and leaders of the lands and many people gathered to read in the Torah as is customary in the communities. And since the town is near the congregation of Przemysl … they convey from there the Torah scroll belonging to the congregation of Przemysl" (Responsa of R. Meir of Lublin, no. 84). Few Jews were able to settle permanently in Jaroslaw after the middle of the 15th century because of the opposition of the burghers, but a settlement gradually developed during the 17th century, while the fair diminished in importance. The first local synagogue was established in the 1640s, and a synagogue of the (Four) Lands is mentioned as existing therein those years; in the synagogue of the (Four) Lands the Council's decrees of excommunication and announcements were made public. The   cemetery was established in 1699. A blood libel in 1737 led to the suicide of one of the victims subjected to torture; others were cruelly put to death. In 1738 there were approximately 100 Jewish families living in Jaroslaw. In 1813 the Jewish population numbered 2,355 (out of a total of 9,007), and in 1921, 6,577 (out of 19,973). A number of the rabbis of Jaroslaw won recognition for their learning. (Israel Halperin) -Holocaust Period The city was captured by the Germans on Sept. 10, 1939. Their first anti-Jewish act was to set the synagogue aflame. On Sept. 12, 1939, the Germans imposed a fine. To insure the execution of this order, some communal workers were arrested, including the prewar head of the community Mendel Reich, whose fate remains unknown. On Sept. 28, 1939, the Germans ordered the population to assemble in the Sokol sports field. Some 7,000 persons assembled and were deported across the San River to Soviet-occupied territory. At the time of deportation, the Jews had to hand over all items of value and all their belongings were stolen. On the Soviet side, their fate was that of other Jewish refugees from western Poland. They suffered from lack of proper housing conditions, difficulties in finding work, and administrative restrictions. In the summer of 1940 many were exiled into the Soviet interior. Several hundred of those exiled to Russia survived, while those in east Poland were killed by the Germans during the German-Soviet War, in the years 1941–44. The community was not reconstituted after World War II. (Aharon Weiss) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Halpern, Pinkas, index; M. Steinberg, Żydzi w Jarosławiu od czasów najdawniejszych do połowy XIX wieku (1933); idem, Gmina żydowska w Jarosławiu od jej powstania … (1937); W.A. Wagner, Handel Jarosławia do połowy XVII wieku (1929); Z. Horowitz, in: Otsar ha-Hayyim, 5 (1929), 203–8; N. Weinryb, in: Khrev, 12 (1957), 154–9.

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jaroslaw I. — Jaroslaw der Weise Portrait von Jaroslaw Jaroslaw I. Wladimirowitsch Mudryj, der Weise, aus dem Geschlecht der Rurikiden, (* 979/86; † 20. Oktober …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jarosław — Jarosław …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jarosław — Héraldique …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jaroslaw — Jarosław bezeichnet: Jarosław, eine Stadt in der polnischen Woiwodschaft Karpatenvorland Jaroslaw ist der Name folgender Personen: Jaroslaw der Weise (979/986–1054), Großfürst von Kiew Jaroslaw (Oppeln) (1143/1163–1201), Herzog von Oppeln,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jaroslaw II. — Jaroslaw II. Wsewolodowitsch (* 1190; † 30. September 1246 in Karakorum), ab 1238 Großfürst von Wladimir aus dem Geschlecht der Rurikiden, Sohn Wsewolod Jurjewitschs und Vater Wassilis. Jaroslaw II. folgte seinem Bruder Jurij II., der 1238 in… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jarosław —   [ja rɔsu̯af], Kreisstadt in der Woiwodschaft Vorkarpaten, im Südosten von Polen, 185 200 m über dem Meeresspiegel, am San in den Vorbergen der Karpaten, 39 000 Einwohner; Wirk und Strickwarenherstellung, Glas , Keramik , Holz ,… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Jaroslaw [2] — Jaroslaw (Jaroslawl), Hauptstadt des gleichnamigen russ. Gouvernements (s. oben), am Einfluß des Kotorost in die Wolga, Knotenpunkt der Eisenbahnen Moskau J. Archangel, J. Kostroma und J. Rybinsk, ist regelmäßig gebaut, hat fünf Vorstädte und… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Jaroslaw [1] — Jaroslaw (Jaroslawl), 1) sonst Großfürstenthum, jetzt Gouvernement in Rußland, 596 QM.; 928,500 Ew.; meist flach, lehmig u. sandig, Moräste; Flüsse: Wolga, Mologa, Scheksna, Kotoroßt u. viele Seen (darunter der Rostover, 2 Meilen lang); bringt… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Jaroslaw [2] — Jaroslaw. I. Großfürst von Rußland. 1) J. od. Juri I. Wladimirowitsch, 988 mit seinem Vater Wladimir getauft, erhielt von demselben noch bei seinem Leben Rostow u. später Nowgorod; er hatte nach seines Vaters Tode 1015 mit seinem Bruder Swätopolk …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Jaroslaw [1] — Jaroslaw (Jaroslawl), russ. Gouvernement, grenzt nördlich an die Gouvernements Nowgorod und Wologda, westlich an Twer, südlich an Wladimir, östlich an Kostroma und umfaßt 35,613 qkm (646,6 QM.). Das Land bildet eine Hochfläche mit vielen Sümpfen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.